Th company was founded in 1900 and it is known for its metal working. No clear data on its origin are known but it was based in Pforzheim and a 1901 patent (nº CH-24220) shows Georg Fend e Karl Fend as assigner, so we assume they are the foundeers. The company is also known for the production of pens with high quality overlay in rolled gold metal or silver, which were also used by other manufacturers for their models. It is also believed to be the producer of most overlays used by Montblanc in the '20s and '30s.
The company, however, is much better known for its production of mechanical pencils are able to maintain and use various mines in different colors, marketed under the Norma brand. There are present in many advertising, like those that are listed below. Approximately in the second half of the 1920s a foreign branch under was founded in Milan (as "Fratelli Fend di E. Fend"), which produced good safety pens (company was active in the overlay production) distributed under the name of Fendograph. Between known models there is the Fend Norma, with a peculiar conic nib.
Also in the '30s in the United States was present with the Norma brand the company Norma Multicolor, Inc., New York, NY, also producing mechanical pencils. It remained active until 1967. In the '50s it produced models made entirely of metal. Sometime Norma Multicolor is indicated as another Fend branch, but it seems more likely to be a completely different company.
- for the date we take as reference this FPN thread and not the 1899 mentioned by other sites and by the Lambrou book.
- in Letizia Jacopini's book is said in the early 1930s, but in the entries about the company published in several years of the "Industrial Yearbook of the Province of Milan" (loof at the documents link) the years 1924, 1925 and 1929 are given, leading us to shift this indication backwards.